| “The aesthetic essence" of the Japanese
architecture known just by actually touching
Where is the difference between an engineer and a technician?
If it compares and says, engineers will be those who have studied the building from the academic point of view, and a technician will say the thing of craftsman (匠), such as Touryou (棟梁=Master).
An engineer's merit is knowing a technical theory and a technician's merit is that there is skill which actually builds a building. However, an engineer and a technician are troubled only by knowing only one either in fact.
Even about what, that it is not good tries to persist in theory, and it may persist only in the view of Takumi (匠) and there is at one side.
[ no ] Since the contents of the work [ itself ] are different, respectively, it is also that what is necessary is just to leave according to speciality nature, but even if it knows only the place good at it, then, he cannot understand a true portion.
Situation of work of the engineer to whom theory gives priority of the spot.
It is necessary to also know some.
It is also a fact that there is a man of the tendency which does not talk to a craftsman earnestly under the influence which the engineer of now many graduated from the university and acquires knowledge.
The time which had few engineers who graduated from the university, and the engineer and craftsman who are present in the office of the spot were working with sufficient relations.
Since there is much work which an engineer's is in an office and draws a drawing and it is bored only in it, a craftsman's work is done.
It carried out I handling it in a place, and having you let it somewhat use a Nomi (鑿= The tool used for making a hole in wood, a stone, metal, etc., or mincing a slot), or I being allowed to give a Tyouna (手斧= Hand ax), and actually using a tool.
Such a thing is important.
It may understand for the first time because
an engineer actually uses a tool.
Only by seeing the marks of a Nomi (鑿= It is the same as explanation of above "Nomi") because some also know work of the spot, the aim [ adopted / what kind of how to carve ] ? comes to attach this, and it can be understood what kind of place is also difficult.
The present designer is theoretical priority, and since the Building Standard Law exists, he has those who want to use concrete and a steel frame also for repair of a cultural property or old private-house reproduction.
There is an example to which what the designer calculated and built broke in the earthquake without limit. although they are referred to as unavoidable at such a time since the load besides calculation was always added old Touryou (棟梁) leaving the load besides calculation was applied.
The convenient language to say was never used.
It is the building which Touryou (棟梁) and others built, and even if just it requires the load besides calculation, there are many buildings which collapse, a crack, etc. do not enter at all but remain strongly still now.
I want to obtain without overlooking such matters. Although theory is also important, I regard the building which actually stands now as improving well being the most important thing. As a few gets to know how to use a tool and a design gets it like a special man, it thinks that just --, such as actually touching a tree, and experience of those are important.
I think that the earthquake-proof intensity camouflage problem which is at issue now will be what probably could not happen if people engaged in a design can have "how to use a tool" and time "to touch a tree."
Residences are a family's life and property which actually live, and a "vessel" which includes all of lives that were stuck to the area again, and the usual goods greatly differ in them. if this earthquake-proof intensity camouflage problem is a defect and I will destroy surrounding living environment completely mind --
It will build and will unload immediately. I think that it is what has occurred in the social composition made the mistake in saying that it is regional vitalization.
Probably, naturally all people are holding the wish of wanting to live in "a safe and good residence."
Especially the concern about safety is strong after the Great Hanshin Earthquake, and has also collected the expectation for good environment or the rows of houses which can take pride beautifully.
This camouflage problem is a mistake or not negligence but the intentional act of building an article for sale with profits top priority "early and at a low price" to the last, and winning market competition, and is the criminal act forced on the customer, getting to know "it is a defective product dangerous in fact."
On the other hand, although it is just going to inspect whether structural designs, such as arrangement of a pillar and a beam and Haikin (配筋= Steel rod command), are originally appropriate to examination of a construction check, the present condition is that the examination organization and the private-sector check organization of administration have in fact almost no those who can examine structure certainly.
It is only examining whether the present construction check observing the Building Standard Law, and being designed in the right procedure.
Furthermore, all "inspection" of
construction of the spot has
While it is said that there are about 270,000 first-class registered architects all over the country, the first-class registered architects actually engaged in the structural design are about about 9000 people, and the very slight people are engaged in examination of administration etc. It must be said that it is difficult to examine strictly a lot of construction check, i.e., a structural design, in this attitude.
The construction check system was founded by the Building Standard Law in 1950.
It is revival after the Second World War, and many buildings (prefab-izing) tended to be built all over the country those days.
Architects Law and a construction industry method were enacted as a legal system to build "a good building" from the side of architectural skills.
By building through a fixed qualification person or a license contractor, I thought that the building beyond a fixed level was probably built. therefore, long, when "a registered architect and a construction contractor" originally have the responsibility about a defective building -- period recognition has been carried out.
However, by large revision of the Building Standard Law, with private sector opening, it is a check organization until now and will not spread in 1998.
When a chief architect's authority stepped toward "inspection machine Seki" 1 step, only the expectation for a check system [ from ] became large. it is difficult for a chief architect to fully understand private architectural skills etc. -- it must be said that it is next to impossible to check all the technical problems again.
I think that it is this camouflage problem that made this actual condition know anew.
Please imagine just for a moment.
This is the traditional thing which have inherited Japanese architecture and which is not considered by that Touryou (棟梁) leaves.
After taking earthquake resistance into consideration certainly, as for Nagesi (長押= The component horizontally struck against the pillar from the pillar), the portion which becomes the axis of structure also as another is not using the nail fundamentally.
It did not dare have used a nail. That is "Chie of Takumi (匠)" and it is because it knew when a tree could not be killed with a nail. If it also becomes Kamakura and the Muromachi period, it will have trouble in a nail.
Although it cannot have been, there is also a much higher quality nail than the latest nail, not to mention it.
It avoided if possible that Touryou (棟梁) of those days used a nail.
If a nail strikes firmly and it fastens, when the earthquake and the typhoon will have attacked, if a nail is weak, it will break from there, and if a nail is conversely strong, it will respond to power from the front in the place of a nail.
It will become things and will break as a result. if the tree was only combined, power can be missed well in the combined place and it is effective in suppressing a shake a shake is made small at the same time it misses a shake.
A tree expands and contracts by change of humidity etc., even after being put together. if it is not fixing with a nail, it is based on this elasticity change of a size is also absorbable.
Moreover, it is not necessary to carry out a fear of rusting, since it is iron like a nail etc. -- old Touryou (棟梁)leaving just since it has built with careful consideration and pride to a building, although it will be as 100 years or more not only in the building of a cultural property but in a general old private house, many buildings where structure became brave are existing in all parts of Japan.